Saturday, December 28, 2019

Music Therapy - 2049 Words

Introduction In this research paper, the effectiveness of music therapy on the cognitive degenerative disorder of dementia will be evaluated. To support the contention that music therapy is effective in treating the symptoms of dementia, research documenting this therapy’s impact on memory, emotions, and behavior will be examined. In order to provide a greater understanding of music therapy and dementia, these terms will be defined. Second, research will be examined to determine music therapy’s impact on the psychological and behavioral issues associated with dementia. Finally, a summary of music therapy’s benefits and an evaluation of its effectiveness in treating individuals afflicted with dementia will be discussed.†¦show more content†¦Alzheimer s disease causes 50% to 60% of all cases of dementia (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke). In addition, researchers have found that two other nervous system conditions, Lewy b ody disease and Pick s disease, which were originally incorrectly diagnosed as Alzheimer s, are emerging as major causes of dementia (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke). Dementia is considered a late-life disease because it tends to develop mostly in elderly people; as many as half of all people over the age of eighty are suspected of suffering from Alzheimer s disease (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke). Doctors administer a variety of strategies to diagnose dementia (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke). It is extremely important that all treatable conditions first be ruled out, such as depression and Vitamin B12 deficiency, which can cause the same type of symptoms as dementia (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke). Timely and accurate diagnosis of dementia is extremely important for both the patient and their families because it allows early treatment of symptoms (National Institute of Neurologica l Disorders and Stroke). A variety of tests are used to aid in the diagnosis process, such as neurological evaluations, in which doctors look specifically at patients’ balance, sensory responses, reflexes, and various other functions (NationalShow MoreRelatedMusic Therapy And Its Effects854 Words   |  4 PagesMusic therapy is not currently a widely recognized option of treatment. If an individual goes to see a healthcare professional nowadays, it would be highly unlikely that that individual would receive a recommendation for music therapy treatment. Yet, music therapy is an established field of medical science that dates back to the time of the ancient Greeks. So, what is music therapy? Music therapy is defined as â€Å"treatment including creating, singing, moving to, and/or listening to music† (â€Å"What isRead MoreMusic Therapy Is Effective Or Not?925 Words   |  4 Pagestoday’s day and age, people cannot go anywhere or do anything without listening to music. From elevator music, to exercise in the gym, to background music in restaurants, to the radio in the car, we cannot escape music. It is such an overlooked yet essential part of our daily lives, but what is unknown by many is that music is also used very deliberately in the lives of others. Many hospitals use music therapy to help treat their stroke patients, premature infants, those diagnosed with AlzheimerRead MoreMusic Therapy1769 Words   |  8 PagesMusic therapy is used to treat people for various reasons and there are multiple styles of treatment presently being used. Music therapy is an effective form of therapy that is used on people of all ages to improve quality of life. Music therapy has been used in the medical industry for more than 60 years and there are many people who have no idea what it is. During W.W.I., music therapy in the United States began to develop when music was used in the Veterans Administration Hospitals as an interventionRead MoreThe American Music Therapy Association1043 Words   |  5 PagesThe American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) defines music therapy as an â€Å"established health profession in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals†. Studies have shown that there are clear benefits from listening to or playing music, but research over the last decade proves music can be used to heal in the medical field. Dementia and other neurological disorders have no cure, only treatments to lessen the symptomsRead MoreMusic And Music Therapy ( N.a.m.t ) Essay1826 Words   |  8 PagesMusical Therapy   Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"Music, even in situations of the greatest of horror, should never be painful to the ear but should flatter and charm it, and thereby always remain music.† (Mozart). Music is pervasive in everyday life. It is used as a means of communication. It allows us to better oneself, and continues to be an outlet for creativity that is ever changing in this era. The use of music in a therapy session dates back to ancient times and has even been discovered in ancient biblical scripturesRead MoreShould Music Therapy Be Taught?1812 Words   |  8 PagesMedicinal Melodies Jodi Picoult, New York Times best-selling author of Sing You Home once said, Music therapy, to me, is music performance without the ego. It’s not about entertainment as much as it s about empathizing. If you can use music to slip past the pain and gather insight into the workings of someone else’s mind, you can begin to fix a problem. Music therapy is precisely that: an assuaging therapy meant to heal patients who need empathy, love, and tranquility. Patients in the neonatal intensiveRead MoreIs Music Therapy Beneficial?768 Words   |  4 PagesTherapy can consist of a vast number of interventions. Some can be as simple as the presence of music. Especially when dealing with patients experiencing bouts of mental illness. This article provides specific insight in regards to whether music throughout therapy is beneficial to those experiencing forms of dementia. According to, Sherrati, Thorton Hatton, p. 13, (2004), â€Å"The use of the term music in this paper refers to a variety of music interventions (eg. listening to music), whereas the termsRead MoreMusic Therapy ( Mt )1845 Words   |  8 PagesFor most, music plays an integral role in life. Whether it’s putting a playlist on to get hyped-up for a daily workout, or shuffling through an Adele album to get through a bad break-up. In short, music is connected to our mood. Henceforth, it should come as no surprise that music therapy (MT) has been used in various forms of rehab, specifically in terms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). ASD is a condition masked with impairments to social functioning, speech, and language along with unusual behaviorsRead MoreThe Benefits Of Music Therapy Essay1342 Words   |  6 PagesThe Unbeknownst Benefits of Music Therapy Music therapy, a clinical use of music interventions to accomplish therapeutic goals, involves a broad range of activities including playing an instrument, singing, or listening to music. Similar to occupational and physical therapy, this expressive arts therapy remedies psychological conditions, such as depression, anxiety, or hypertension to maintain the well-being of an individual. Likewise, music has been a therapeutic tool that has shown positive effectsRead MoreMusic Therapy And Its Effectiveness1269 Words   |  6 Pages Musical therapy is a precise, evidence-based use of music to help accomplish certain goals or objectives in a therapeutic setting. Research in music therapy supports its effectiveness in many areas such as: overall physical rehabilitation, increasing people s motivation to become more involved in their treatment, giving emotional support for clients and their families, and providing an way for expression of their feelings to others. Musical therapy in a more detailed descriptions is an established

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Erik Erikson s Stages Of Human Development - 1790 Words

Erik Erikson is most famously known for his eight stages of human development. As a former student of Freud, Erikson was interested in the going ons of early childhood development and what the outcomes can be. With such an interest came his eight stages, each with a positive outcome and a negative outcome, depending on the environment in which the individual develops. The first five stages are the ones that are dependent a lot on how a parent reacts with their child, considering it covers the first 18 year of life. The first five stages are the ones which will be discussed concerning baby Jude. Jude was born 7 pounds 3 ounces on August 4 2019. At the beginning of his life, Jude will begin to either develop trust or mistrust, the first stage of Erikson’s development. This stage occurs during the first year of life when Jude has needs that he has to rely on his parents for. When Jude cries, he must be cared to to see if he needs feeding, changing, or simply to be held. Should hi s parents attend to his needs in a timely and consistent manner, Jude will develop trust and begin to take that trust into future relationships and situations, trusting that things will be okay. If Jude is left to cry himself to sleep time and again and doesn’t get the care or attention he needs, Jude will develop mistrust, which will lead to fear in future relationships and endeavors. This first stage is a crucial stage to set up because without this as a foundation, Jude cannot continue to grow inShow MoreRelatedErikson’S Contributions To Human Development. Erik Erikson1033 Words   |  5 PagesErikson’s Contributions to Human Development Erik Erikson was a man whose interests varied widely. He studied art and a variety of languages during his schooling. He did not prefer the atmosphere of formal schooling and decided to travel around Europe instead of going to college (â€Å"Erik Erikson†, 1997). He then returned to Germany for art school and later on taught to children who had come for Freudian training. He became Boston’s first child analyst and obtained a position at Harvard Medical SchoolRead MoreDevelopmental Psychologist Erik Erikson s Stages Of Psychosocial Development1729 Words   |  7 PagesDevelopmental psychologist Erik Erikson changed the way that people viewed the psychosocial development in humans throughout their lifespan. Using the foundation provided by Freud’s psychosexual stages, he modified the concepts to where they demonstrated external impacts on development as well as making it more about emotional conflicts than necessarily physical drives. This eight-stage theory is se quential, and requires the person to overcome conflicts in each stage to become a productive memberRead MoreErik Erikson s Stages Of Development1608 Words   |  7 PagesThe Psychosocial Development The View on Erik H. Erikson s Stages of Development Frank Phan Cosumnes River College Psychology 300 Abstract This paper will touch over the aspects of Erik H Erickson s eight stages and how they affect everyday lives from infancy to adulthood. The paper will go over the approximate ages and the psychosocial crisis that they will eventually come to. Neglecting a child can lead to a cause of mental negligence in the form of Arrested Development. Within differentRead MoreErik Erikson s Theory Of Psychosocial Development884 Words   |  4 PagesErik Erikson Erik Erikson was born June 15, 1902. Erikson is best-known for his famous theory of psychosocial development and the concept of the identity crisis. His theories marked an important shift in thinking on personality; instead of focusing simply on early childhood event, his psychosocial theory looked at how social influences contribute to personality throughout the entire lifespan. Erik Erikson died May 12, 1994 due to prostate cancer. (Erik Erikson, 2015). Stages of Psychosocial DevelopmentRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Mcadams 1154 Words   |  5 PagesIn this article McAdams, the author guides the reader through the life stories of different psychologists , he provide a real recollection of life stories and narrative approaches that recent researcher and theories have apply to understand human behavior. This article integrates recent theories and researchers of life stories as illustrated the investigation of self-understanding, personal memory, personality structure and change, and the relations between the personal lives and cultural. TheRead MoreSigmund Freud And Erik Erikson1110 Words   |  5 Pagesdiscontinuous psychosexual and psychosocial theory takes place in stages in one course moving through drives that are biological along with societal expectations (Berk, 2013). The contributions to this perspective include both Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. Freud examined psychosexual theory and how those first childhood years of drives shape the personality. Thus, such drive names are the id, ego, and superego. The id emergences in the early stages of infancy, between 3 to 6 years of age the superego orRead MoreErik Erikson s Psychosocial Theory On Child Development1388 Words   |  6 PagesErik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory on Child Development Erik Erikson, a well known developmental theorist, developed his theory about stages of human development from birth to death by using Freud s work as a starting point. According to Erikson, personality develops in a series of stages. Erikson found out that children experience conflicts which affect their development. He described the internal conflict which children go through in developmental stages using the term ‘crisis’ and are based onRead MoreThe Theory Of Human Behavior1360 Words   |  6 Pagesour development and human nature has become unassailable. Throughout the vicissitude of humanity, we have progressed from our barbaric – and rather primitive-instinctual nature towards a sophisticated and dignified population. Perhaps our development did not progress as conciliating as one would hope, but some of the most influential psychological figures have enabled us to have a comprehensive understanding of why we are who we are today. Even still, the comprehe nsion of who we are as human beingsRead MoreErik Erikson s Psychosocial Development Theory1518 Words   |  7 PagesABSTRACT This research paper will show a thorough review of Erik Erikson s Psychosocial Development Theory, specifically the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Psychosocial Development, according to Erik Erikson, is a continuity of crisis throughout our lifespan; these challenges will shape our personality and the way we perceive our surroundings. In addition to this, the different stages mentioned in this Theory complement each other and help us to develop the tools to achieve a sense ofRead MoreEarly Life Experiences Impact The Person Across Their Lifespan930 Words   |  4 Pagesin the Jane Piaget theory ‘Stages of cognitive development’ (1936) and Erik Erikson theory ‘Psychosocial stages’ (1950). Piaget argued that children develop knowledge by constructing their experience and observe with their own ideas about how the thing works.(Burton, L.J., Westen, d. Kowalski, R.M. 2015) He developed 4 stages of his theory: Sensorimotor Stage, Preoperational Stage , Concrete Operational Stage and Formal Operational Stage. At the same time, Erik Erikson proposed a psychoanalytic theory

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Employability Skills Development

Question: Discuss about theEmployability Skills Development . Answer: Introduction The course study is developed on the lines of pertinent skills and capabilities that is an essential pre-requisite for the prospective employee. It is built on the framework of meeting the hiring objectives of a great employer or an organization. They seek for the best qualities in a candidate; therefore students who shall introduce oneself to the employer with all the appropriate inter personal and other technical skills must develop them efficiently. This is the importance and significance of the coursework. It has equipped the participants with group work and collaborative assignments which has enabled me with several tackling capacities. The ability to communicate effectively within all levels. In order to enhance the effective communication required in an organizational set up, the course has designed some activities. These tasks will help in developing the interpersonal and occupational skills to an individual. Verbal and nonverbal communications are two of the most important modes through which interaction takes place between the employer and employee. Therefore the activities which are involved in the study of the coursework are performed in groups, which have improved my coordination and cooperation skills. The students have to showcase presentations during the term period of the coursework so that they can portray that in reality while dealing with the professionals in a workplace. In a workplace one has to communicate with staff members at different levels. Hence, I can communicate successfully in writing and verbally with individuals at all levels. Strategic planning, organization and prioritizing The three main elements of a compatible individual are his skills of strategic planning, prioritizing and organization. The various activities of the coursework in developing the employability skills of an individual or a student in this instance includes both academic and co-circular activities. The assessments that are followed in this coursework aid the individual to improve their time management skills. The management of appropriate planning and organizing in distributing their time accordingly to both co-circular and academic actions can be determined throughout this course unit. The tasks that are assigned during this coursework help in analyzing the determination and capacity of an individual in delivering a completed work within a stipulated deadline. It helps the soon-to-be-a-employer to set goals according to the date and timeline. In fact the skill of priority which has emerged from this task management has helped me to become more confident in my sets of interpersonal ski lls. I have been a chairperson and was responsible in organizing various events in every semester during the time period of the coursework. Great interpersonal skills employed in mobilizing a team Along with mutual cooperation and coordination I am also capable of fostering my interpersonal skills. I have developed my skills which I have gained during this coursework, have employed while mobilizing a team comprising of 20 members during one of the events. I have successfully implemented al the occupational and interpersonal skills. In a work set up like a huge event, one has to deal with a number of different individuals therefore; through this it has developed my perspective of tactfully handling everyone. My leadership skills can be observed from the fact that I have been chosen as the leader in many instances where the group members have invested immense faith and responsibility which I have met diligently. Conclusion The coursework has been of great consequence to my development in diverse aspects. I have gained the aptitude to converse effectively both verbally and in non verbal modes, I can organize work, plan goals and prioritize to guarantee that deadlines are met, and finally I have superior interpersonal skills along with the ability to organize teams.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Research Paper Topics Essay Example

Research Paper Topics Paper To start is the most difficult part of writing. Topic selection is that crucial moment when you begin the process. The theme of your article determines a lot of significant aspects: research, structuring, examples. If your research paper topics are not relevant to the subject, you may lose valuable points for the final grade. Choosing the theme can be difficult and time-consuming. That is why we have gathered the list of interesting themes on various subjects here. Moreover, you can read about main tips and recommendations about the chosen title. Dont Hurry Up when Choosing the Topics for Research Paper There is no use taking a random theme without proper consideration. A research paper is not a short essay which you can finish in one or two days. You will have to work on your task for weeks. The subject of your writing should be your major focus for quite a long span. That is why before you decide on the final choice, make sure your subject corresponds to the following recommendations. Focus on your interests Any scientist should find interest and excitement from the sphere of his or her investigation. If you like what you are writing about, you will easily cope with the task. When you have a boring theme, you may hate everything related to the research. Focus on your strengths, remember which subjects you like learning. If you manage to combine your interests and the theme, the writing process may turn out to be amazing. Check the availability of sources We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper Topics specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper Topics specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper Topics specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A research paper should contain references to various sources. Unless you have them, the work will be too subjective. Moreover, you will need to use many sources and include them at the works cited page. Using the Internet and library are the best ways to find out how researchable your subject of the investigation is. The right research paper topics will have lots of credible sources. Think over the title of your work The naming of the work is an indispensable part of the topic selection. It is the first thing what your target audience learns about your piece of writing. Pay attention to the following tips which will help you provide the best heading ever. Informative title Research paper topics shouldnt be very creative or imaginative. It is an academic style, and your title shouldnt be an exception. The object of your analysis should be the central nominalization of the title. It doesnt have to be a question or exclamatory sentence. Perfect length for the title Some students make mistakes in trying to include all the aspects of the investigation. In reality, it is impossible. Figure out the main generalizing words of your theme and write them down. Just 4-7 words about the topic, in general, would be enough. Examples of Topics on Subjects Here you can find the list of research paper topics on different subjects. You can use the title as it is or alter it according to your task requirements. You may choose one topic and narrow it down to specific examples. For instance, if the theme is called Negative and positive sides of social media, you can specify the type of social media. Write about Instagram, Facebook, Twitter. It will help you focus on the exact example. Read the ideas mentioned below to boost your creativity. Technology Cyberbullying as the negative side of the technological advancement. Steve Jobs changed the whole era of the technological world. Negative and positive sides of social media. Elon Masks Falcon Heavy Rocket as a huge breakthrough. A semiconductor is a basis for each technology. Environment The global warming as the problem for the whole humanity. Greenhouse effect and its influence on the global warming. The necessity to promote recycling in less developed countries. Deforestation triggers the problem of endangered species. Wind and solar power are the best alternative types. Business Marketing as the key tool for developing business. Franchising as the means to start your business. Time management as a crucial skill for the businessman. The example of Google in making employees satisfied. Motivation among workers in the business environment. Education Phenomenon-based learning and teaching. Innovative types of teaching strategies. Positive and negative sides of cyber schools. E-learning and its influence on the interpersonal relationship between students. The significance of online courses for pupils. Medicine Euthanasia as a question for medicine and morality. Ways of preventing AIDS. The interconnection of obesity and anorexia. Impact of alcohol on the human body. Differences and similarities in English and American medicaments for curing insomnia. Society The negative influence of Instagram on people. Racial discrimination in the European countries. The role of women in the XXI century. The description of a society in the Atlas Shrugged. Pros and cons of migration. Sport Pros and cons of making sports activities obligatory at school. The effects of practicing yoga on pregnant women. Motivation for sports Healthy eating habits while going in for sport. World organizations on promoting sport among high school and university students. Psychology What are the reasons of stress among children? The causes and consequences the classical music has on the brain work. Short and long-term impact of depression on the humans health. Good dreams can give you inspirations for achieving goals. Violent gaming is the most important factor in the childrens bad behavior. History Causes and the effects of the World War II. Should the government control how writers depict the history of the country in books? The Cold War as the dangerous political state for Main ways to prevent revolution within the nation. How teachers should analyze and discuss the effects of World Wars at schools. Culture Advertisement refers to the modern type of art. Modern subcultures which are popular in the USA. Culture influences behavior vs. behavior influences culture. Installations as the best means to express emotions in art. Notre Dame de Paris as the best musical of all years. ;

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Worn Path By Eudora Welty Essays - Eudora Welty,

Worn Path By Eudora Welty In ?A Worn Path? Eudora Welty's plot is not all that clear in the beginning of her short story, but progresses as her character carries on against all of the overwhelming forces against her. In this short story a black elderly woman, Phoenix Jackson, must overcome the odds against her as she valiantly travels through many obstacles in order to contribute to the wellness of her grandson, for whom she is making this trip down ?a worn path.? It is at this point that all of Welty's readers' hearts open up to this poor, elderly woman as she makes an attempt to carry on her love for her grandson by taking a long journey down a familiar path in order to get medication that seems to help ease his sickness pains. However, there are many forces against Phoenix that Welty includes in her story in order to make Phoenix's adventure end in a victory. Poverty, old age, and her journey through the woods are all of the odds which Phoenix must overcome. Poverty is a major hardship that most of us will never have to face, but in Phoenix's case, poverty is present everyday in her and her grandson's life. Since she is in this state of poverty, Phoenix is not able to enjoy life's luxuries as others do and must make do with what she can. As she begins her journey, it becomes clear that she lacks the money to pay for transportation to and from town; therefore, she starts down her path carrying a ?thin, small cane made from an umbrella? (132). Although Welty never really emphasizes what this is used for the reader can assume that she uses it because she does not have the money to buy the actual cane needed to help her walk properly. Another conflict dealing with poverty arouses when she feels it necessary to steal from a hunter she encounters in the woods. While the hunter walks away her sneaky ?fingers slid down and along the ground under the piece of money with grace and care they would have in lifting an egg from under a setting hen? (134). Here Welty shows that Phoenix must do what she has to in order to survive. Even though it may not appear right, her poverty forces her to act in a way that she only knows best. For instance, when people have a barrier separating them between something they want, they are going to do what they can to achieve their goal no matter what stands in their way. In this case Phoenix is a poor woman and the money catches her eye. Acting on her instinct, she takes what is not hers and hopes that she can get away with it. However, because of her perseverance and determination to better the health of her grandson, Phoenix journeys into town to receive charity that the doctor's office provides her. This ?soothing medicine? they give her is the reason why she makes this trip in the first place (136). However, she is looked upon as a charity case since she has no money to pay for the medication he needs and is given the medicine for free. All of these examples that Welty has described in ?A Worn Path? allow her story to develop by making readers think about what she writes. Poverty is an important issue in today's society and it makes one think of all the fortunes they have. In this sense, Welty also makes one fear poverty by the way she addresses it. The images allow one to feel Phoenix's pain that comes along with poverty. Joyce Carol Oates backs up this statement by adding that by ?disciplining her [Welty's] vision in order to gain deeper penetration into the dark and lovely realities of the lonely human spirit and shaping her fiction so that each story should be something achieved...? (362). Oates simply means that Welty goes beyond normal realities in order to grab the reader's attention. Through poverty, Welty takes a worldwide problem and stretches it to a level in which the person reading her story feels saddened by the power she displays. To be old, poor, and a surrogate mother is a hard job, and Welty does a wonderful job of portraying this through the underlying problem of poverty. Another overpowering element in ?A Worn Path? is Phoenix's age. Welty writes that she has ?numberless branching wrinkles? which illustrates that she has many years behind her (132). It is here

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Texas Political Culture and Immigration essay part 2Essay Writing Service

Texas Political Culture and Immigration essay part 2Essay Writing Service Texas Political Culture and Immigration essay part 2 Texas Political Culture and Immigration essay part 2Texas Political Culture and Immigration essay part  1Texas immigration policies, especially in regard to undocumented immigrants are strict but not as strict as they are in Arizona, for example. Nevertheless, the impact of the traditionalistic and individualistic political culture on immigration policies is obvious. At this point, it is possible to refer to some legislative bills which were and were not introduced in Texas in 2008 and 2009. The 2008 bill 81 (R) -HB 233 that aimed at the creation of an advisory committee to establish and recommend qualifications for certain health care translators and interpreters passed (Payan, 2013). The 2009 bill 81(R) – HB 266 that regulated the provision of benefits and services to, and the verification of the employment status of, immigrants and to enforcing laws relating to immigrants; providing civil and criminal penalties did not pass (Payan, 2013). Similarly, the 2009 bill 81 (R) HB 4482 that required a lawful presence in the United States for receipt of state educational benefits and to the determination of resident status of students by public institutions of higher education as well as the 2009 bill 81 (R) SB 1677 that regulated immigration assistance services and provided civil and criminal penalties did not pass too (Payan, 2013). Also, it is worth mentioning the 81 (R) SB 2568 concerning the prohibition against the knowing employment of persons not lawfully present in the United States and the suspension of licenses held by certain employers for the knowing employment of those persons, that also did not pass (Payan, 2013) that gives implications that the position of undocumented immigrant employees in Texas may be under a threat since the failure of introducing the aforementioned bill limits opportunity of employment. The aforementioned bills that failed and passed reveal quite strict attitude of legislators and politicians of Texas to the illegal im migration. They do not want to expand rights and opportunities of undocumented immigrants to obtain wider access to education and health care services. In addition, legislators attempt to raise barriers for the access of undocumented immigrants to Texas labor market. At any rate, the bill 81 (R) SB 2568 that did not pass could have enhance employment opportunities of undocumented immigrants  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Today, Texas faces a profound immigration crisis, which ultimate manifestation is the immigrant children crises as illegal immigrant children flood into the state. Illegal immigrant children â€Å"have surrendered themselves to U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers on the belief they will be allowed to stay in the country, and officials have struggled to house the children amid a staggering backlog of immigration cases† (Cohen, et al., 2014, 12). In such a way, in face of the emerging flow of undocumented immigrant children, Texas turns ou t to confront the problem on its own because the federal government has failed to prevent and resolve the crisis, while the state was traditionally oriented on the development of its immigration policies using the federal legislation as the legal framework with a strong use of the Constitutional power of the state to develop its own legislation and enforce its immigration policies.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Moreover, undocumented immigrants have the limited access to legal services as human rights activists, who have recently attended one of three operating detention centers in Texas, point out. They â€Å"raised concerns that families aren’t being given necessary access to legal services and that conditions are beginning to take a toll on detained children† (Sakuma, 2014, 3). This is another evidence of the inclination of Texas to the traditionalistic and individualistic political culture because Texans view undocumented immigrants as violators of th e existing legal norms and, more important, as a threat to the existing social order because they misbalance the state labor market, education and health care system, requiring wider support which is provided for them from the part of the federal government, especially in the field of education and health care services.Instead, the local authorities attempt to raise barriers on the way of immigrant to Texas, although those barriers are not as strict as is the case of Arizona, for example. The Senator Comyn in a collaboration with the Representative Cuellar have a plan to introduce legislation Thursday to repeal the 2008 deportation hearing law, but the introduction of the law may limit consistently the access of illegal immigrant children to the US and, therefore, Texas, on the pretext of protections for children who come to the United States because of concerns about drug or sex trafficking (Cohen, et al., 2014). This proposition implies the tightening immigrant legislation that wi ll prevent undocumented immigrant children of the wider legal protection of their rights.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   At the same time, the development of Texas political culture raises the problem of conflict between different trends or political cultures. In this regard, the policy concerning immigration reveals the full extent to which political cultures in Texas come into clashes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Moreover, the position of political leaders of Texas is likely to become even stricter in regard to immigration policies, as â€Å"Patrick- and like-minded new state GOP leaders like Senator Ted Cruz- are steering Texas Republicans sharply rightward on immigration issues† (Brownstein, 2014, 2). Moreover, â€Å"Patrick ousted incumbent Lt. Gov. David Dewhurst in a GOP primary this year, mostly behind promises to toughen enforcement at the Mexican border and to repeal the policy of providing in-state public college tuition to young people brought to th e U.S. illegally- a plan that the outgoing Gov. Perry signed and still defends† (Brownstein, 2014, 2). In fact, such a situation in the political life of Texas and preferences of local voters show that politicians standing on the traditionalistic and individualistic ground are still very popular in Texas and can gain the wide support due to the prevalence of the traditionalistic and individualistic culture in Texas.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   At the same time, as Texan politicians enter the federal politics they extrapolate their political culture on their policies at the federal level.   However, at the federal level, political culture is more diverse and the opposition from the part of other political cultures, which remain under-represented in Texas, is very strong. As a result, politicians from Texas are often perceived as highly conservative in the federal politics. At the same time, Texas politicians do not accept political cultures different from thei r own that leads to conflicts and tension between politicians at the federal level.ConclusionThus, I have shown Texas is a state with a strong traditionalistic and individualistic political culture. The state provides extensive support for the conservative Republican Party and the Presidential election returns within the last thirty years have proved this fact clearly. In addition, current immigration policies and legal initiatives also show that the state government’s   and legislators attempts to protect the traditional lifestyle and individual initiative of the state population and raise barriers on the way to the illegal immigration by preventing the access of undocumented immigrants to the state, to the local labor market and limiting their opportunities to access education and health care services in Texas. In such a way, Texas political culture is different from some of other states in the US. At the same time, Texas political culture has a strong impact on the feder al politics because Texas politicians represent the conservative part of the US society and personify traditional American values. As a result, they often come into clashes with more liberal politicians from other states, when they operate at the federal level, where they attempt to implement the same principles of political culture they used to implement in Texas.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The U.S.A War with Iran Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The U.S.A War with Iran - Research Paper Example Let’s first discuss why Iran is disliked among the Western nations. Iran has already been seeing tense relationship with the U.S. and its allies, since the Iranian Revolution that came about in the late 1970s. The threat to Iran’s solidarity increased when President Bush declared it as part of â€Å"Axis of Evil† (â€Å"Iran War†, para.1). This risk did not decrease with the election bringing Barrack Obama in presidency. The notion that has further triggered the decision of war with Iran is Iran’s quest in nuclear technology. According to the U.S., the fact that Iran is acquiring nuclear weapons will be a threat to world’s peace. Even the allies of the U.S. - England, Germany, and France, are worried about this nuclear state of Iran. Moreover, Israel has also a long prevailed hate relationship with the Muslim world. This hatred grew when the President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, gave some anti-Semitic statements declaring that Israel should not be present on the face of the Earth. This situation increased Israel’s worry that Iran might be acquiring nuclear weapons to destroy Israel, which being one of the U.S.’s allies.This introduction explained why the U.S. decides to enter into war with Iraq, but now let’s discuss why this is a bad strategy. First of all, it is a matter of peace. Entering into war will disrupt the peace, not only of Iran but also of the U.S. who has already lost the lives of many of soldiers in military actions against Iraq and Afghanistan.... who has already lost the lives of many of soldiers in military actions against Iraq and Afghanistan. Nouraee (para.10) states that Americans will never tolerate if the correct number of casualties of American soldiers in the war is revealed to them. War will only increase hatred and will encourage the residents of the attacked country to develop rebellious feelings toward the U.S. This will not help to decrease terrorist attacks, but will increase violence and radical hostility. It will only turn it into a global hate war. Hence, war on terror in Iran is not a good strategy, because the U.S. has already been suffering from financial burden because of heavy budgets being assigned to war on terror. The U.S. will never want to weaken its economy further. Terrorism is still increasing. Hence, we cannot relate the war on terror to increase or decrease in terrorism. War will only raise turbulence, hatred, rebellion, violence, as well as even more terrorist attacks in future. Also, war mean s destruction. War kills many innocent people along side terrorists. Little children, frail women, and old people get killed for no reason. Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan killed many innocent lives. The U.S. has always been a liberal country, as well as has always talked about the rights of children, men, women, old people, and even animals. If the U.S. enters into a war with Iran, it will be a huge threat to the liberal reputation for it. The war on terror must come to halt because it kills innocent citizens of the attacked country. Cline (para.1) writes that: One of the most common antiwar arguments is the fact that wars result in the deaths of innocent people. This objection accepts that a state may have a vested interest in

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Theoretical Communication Concepts and Its Application in Management Essay

Theoretical Communication Concepts and Its Application in Management - Essay Example Galloway & Thacker 2007 proposed a nonhierarchical structure to organizational communication; the network model, which is an interactive model of communication. SMCR model is a one-way communication model, the sender encodes a message which is then channeled to a receiver through a medium, the receiver then decodes the message. Limitations of this models lie in the fact that there is no feedback display from the receiver, this undermines the core purpose of communication in that it does not reveal the impact of the message on the receiver (Mullins, 2008, 72). It also assumes a one-way mode of communication clearly marking the beginning and end of communication implying the receiver lacks a response. This communication model can only be in a formal organization setting which mainly focuses on structure (top-down structure) whereby the position of the communicator and the recipient is highly considered. This form of communication is mostly written in the form of company magazines, handbooks, and manuals that stipulated organizational requirements, in this case, interactions between the two parties is not necessary, the top level management simply communicates policies and guidelines to employees (Murton, Inman & Osullivan, 2010). This model of communication is efficient as a human resource tool in the sense that it is simple to administer and can generally address all members of the organization. The network model proposed by Galloway and Thacker is a two-way communication model, it encompasses two linear models that enable response from the receiver, hence the receiver acts as the sender as the response message is channeled to the actual sender (Martin & Fellenz, 2010, 45).  

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Teamwork, Collboration, and Conflict Resolution Essay

Teamwork, Collboration, and Conflict Resolution - Essay Example an help achieve collaboration through communication, stability, research and evaluation, as well as resources, leadership, group development and participation to help achieve collaboration in the work place. Collaboration is a process of participation through which people, groups and organizations work together to achieve desired results. It is important that communication is clear and established through a process. Resources are important to use because of their accessibility and credibility to provide results of tools that have been tried before and succeeded or failed or in process through research and evaluation. Management needs to be able to provide leadership and direction to promote and facilitate the workplace in order to develop a sense of collaboration. It is important for those that are in managerial roles to help support team building through this process. Group development helps address important issues along the way. It is important for mangers to identify personality types and the different groups of people that work best together to get the job done. This will help managers in developing a communication system to help achieve the goals and objectives that are put in place. Employees feel connected in formal and informal communication through network and group development, this is important for employees in their personal and professional development. Management is a very high position and takes a lot of understanding within the department or group they are leading. A manager has to be bias and also be able to resolve any conflicts that their employees may have. Looking over conflicts that can happen in the work will consist of using the five factors that come into play. The most effect to me would be to calibrate the ideas that are coming up in the conflict. Put in writing what each employee has to say and make an evaluation on what the next step will be. Each employee has a say so in any type of change or goal that each department is trying to

Friday, November 15, 2019

Developing Low Energy and Sustainable Homes

Developing Low Energy and Sustainable Homes Climate change and energy security are the greatest challenges facing the world today. Climate change is causing global warming, which is the increase in the average temperature on the earths surface, air and oceans. The release of greenhouse gas emissions into our atmosphere, from human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation have been a major factor in their increase over the last 100 years. Energy security is vital for any developed economy. The OPEC member countries control about 75% of the worlds oil reserves (R). Many of these countries are politically unstable and they can control the price of oil. In the early years of this decade, the UK was a net exporter of gas and it is estimated that by 2020, they will only be able to meet about 40% of their oil and gas needs themselves(R). The UK needs to reduce its green house gas emissions and meet their energy demands without having to rely on other nations. The Kyoto protocol was established to limit and reduce the amount of green house gases released into the atmosphere. Industrialised countries, and those is transition to a market economy, which were called the Annex I countries have agreed to ratify the agreement and reduce their emissions to a 1990s baseline (R). The UKs commitment under the protocol is to reduce their green house gas emissions by 12.5% of 1990 levels, by 2008-2012. This involves an 8% reduction in their C02 emissions, the main cause of global warming, over this time frame. Further aspirational targets are set out in the DTI Energy White Paper published in 2003, such as to reduce CO2 emissions by 80% by 2050 (R). In 2002, the residential sector caused 27% of the UKs CO2 emissions, of which 82% of the energy was for space and water heating (R). The proposals, as laid out by Gordon Brown in 2006 stated that within ten years, every new home will be a zero-carbon home. The Code for Sustainable Homes was introduced in 2007, the code rates the sustainability of homes over six levels based on certain criteria. In theory, constructing zero-carbon homes (homes which can generate their own electrical and heating needs either onsite or locally) is a fantastic idea which will eventually lower energy demands and then lower the CO2 emissions countrywide. But they are ambitious plans and there are several issues that need to be resolved such as: Zero-Carbon Home: Definition New Construction Techniques Building Regulations The Code for Sustainable Homes Planning Laws Grants and incentives Whats happening now? Certifying Agencies Zero Carbon Homes: There is still some confusion as to the detailed description of a zero-carbon home. The Housing Minister, John Healy published on the Communities and Local Government (CLG) website the zero carbon homes definition: A zero carbon home is one whose net carbon dioxide emissions, taking account of emissions associated with all energy use in the home, is equal to zero or negative across the year. The definition of energy use will cover both energy uses currently regulated by the Building Regulations and other energy used in the home. (R) Detailed information is still needed about energy imported and used in the zero carbon homes. The energy standards state that there has to be onsite renewable energy and a locally connected heat supply to achieve a 70% reduction in the carbon emissions from current levels. Currently there is no allowance made for renewable energy generated off site, for example, wind and wave power. If I design a proposed zero carbon home and connect it to an energy company that is generating electricity in the north of Scotland, I might not achieve the rating I want which is unfair, even though he electricity is generated from a renewable source. The life cycle of a building is not taken into account in the definition of a zero carbon homes either. The construction, renovation and disposal can cause significant amounts of CO2 emission to be released. A life cycle analyses of a zero carbon home should include the embodied energy within the materials and waste disposal. Of course, not all of the material could be sourced locally as this would be impossible, but each council/local government should be able to compile a list of materials that are located locally. Ideally, a certain percentage of the local materials should have to be used. This would not only decrease the embodied energy within some of the construction materials but also help support local businesses. The government should invest more in the research of this idea, with many businesses suffering in the current economic climate, we should be buying locally, not importing. New Construction Techniques Building Regulations: Our European neighbours have been developing low energy houses and energy saving construction techniques for over 30 years. While some of the techniques might be new to the UK, they have been tried and tested on the continent. Currently the averaged U-Value for Walls, Roofs and Floors (wm2K) in Part L of the Building Regulations for the UK is 0.24, whereas in Germany and Switzerland the Passivehaus and Minergie-P regulations are achieving an average of 0.10(R). In 2013 the averaged UK Part L will lower to 0.18 and then in 2016 to 0.14. (R) The German designed Passivhaus has been a hugely successful energy saving concept that has only reached the UK in recent years. The basic principle include very good levels of insulation with minimal thermal bridging, utilising solar and internal gains by house orientation, window design and location, excellent levels of air tightness and good indoor air quality provided by whole house mechanical ventilation system with highly efficient heat recovery.(R) Sweden, also has produced energy efficient house designs since the 1970s, with different mandatory standards for the north and south due to the difference in climate. There performance standards are among the highest energy efficiency requirements in the world, already in line with Passivhaus standards. Over 7000 home have been constructed across Europe to the Passivhaus standard, the techniques used can easily be adapted here within the UK. The highly insulated and airtight passivhaus have a heating requirment of 15kwh/m2/year, which is nearly 90% less energy used to heat a standard UK home (R). These homes often need little or no heating for 9 months of the year. This will not automatically mean that the houses will achieve the highest level on the Code for Sustainable Homes. If we are to achieve the standards of the Passivhaus, the design and construction techniques should be introduced into the university courses now, for such degrees as I studied (Architectural Technology). These techniques are the future for zero carbon residential, commercial and industrial building. Starting with the basic house construction, if we are thought the techniques on how to construct dwellings that minimise their heat and hot water demand, less energy is needed, and expensive renewable options such as PV cells, geothermal pumps and domestic wind turbines can be reduced. We can then adapt these techniques for other building types. Code for Sustainable Homes Sullivan Report: The Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) was introduced in England on a voluntary basis in May 2007 and a code rating for all new buildings became mandatory from 1st May 2008. The Code Level 3 rating for newly constructed homes promoted or supported by the Welsh Assembly Government became mandatory from 1st May 2008 also and from 2nd June 2008, Code Level 3 is required for all new self-contained social housing in Northern Ireland (R). The Code does not apply in Scotland. A panel was appointed by the Minister for Transport, Infrastructure and Climate Changet, chaired by Lynne Sullivan, they made recommendations to develop a strategy to achieve zero net carbon emissions. Experts for the UK as well as from Norway, Denmark and Austria participated. They agreed on eventual and staged recommendations to be achieved by new build and existing homes in Scotland. The following was recommended for all new build homes in Scotland: Net zero carbon buildings (i.e. space and water heating, lighting and ventilation) by 2016/2017, if practical. Two intermediate stages on the way to net zero carbon buildings, one change in energy standards in 2010 (low carbon buildings) and another in 2013 (very low carbon buildings). The 2010 change in energy standards for non-domestic buildings should deliver carbon dioxide savings of 50% more than 2007 standards. The 2010 change in energy standards for domestic buildings should deliver carbon dioxide savings of 30% more than 2007 standards. The 2013 change in energy standards for non-domestic buildings should deliver carbon dioxide savings of 75% more than 2007 standards. The 2013 change in energy standards for domestic buildings should deliver carbon dioxide savings of 60% more than 2007 standards. Backstop levels of U-values and airtightness for building fabric should be improved in 2010 to match those of Nordic countries, but consideration must be given to the social and financial impact of measures that would necessitate mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in domestic buildings. The ambition of total-life zero carbon buildings by 2030. The Code for Sustainable Homes was introduced to replace Ecohomes which was the energy assessment rating for all homes in B.R.E.E.A.M. (R). The CSH was intended to be a single national standard for design and construction of sustainable homes. The code complements the system of Energy Performance Certificates (EPC) which was introduced in June 2007 under the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) (R). All new homes (and eventually all homes, when they are sold or leased) will have an EPC which provides key information about the energy efficiency/carbon performance of a home. The CSH and EPC and energy assessments used the same terminology. The CSH was developed by using the existing Building Research Establishments (BRE) EcoHomes System. The Code has a scoring system of six levels. The different levels are made up by achieving both the appropriate mandatory minimum standards together with a proportion of flexible standards. Level 6, being the highest level achieves a Zero-Carbon Home standard. The Code has been designed so it is closely linked to the Building Regulations, which are the minimum standards by law. The minimum standards for the Code compliance have been set above the requirements of the Building Regulations. The Code has been set out as a baseline in relation to carbon emissions from energy use in a home. The introduction of the Code for Sustainable Homes will encourage developers to build to higher standards. Homes that will be constructed to the higher standards set out in the Code will produce lower levels of CO2 and generate lower energy bills for the occupants. Including the 6 level scoring systems is a good opportunity for developers and buildings to try various construction techniques and see what level they can achieve. The levels are a good stepping stone to achieve a level 6 score and obtaining a zero-carbon home status. The Code for Sustainable Homes was designed to show how sustainable a home could be. Sustainable homes should include the three pillars of sustainability: Environmental, Social Economic. In the Code, only one of these pillars is addressed, Environmental. For the Code to be truly sustainable the social and economic issues need to be included in the design, construction and operation of all new homes. The location of new homes, either in a rural or built-up area could be added to the weighting system for points scoring. Constructing a home within a certain distance of a public transfer route could also gain points on the scoring system, this would reduce the home owners daily car use and CO2 emissions. The government or local authorities could have specially designated areas, preferably Brownfield sites that could be classed as sustainable sites. A points system could be incorporated into the CSH for constructing a new home in this area. As transport makes up over 23% of UKs GHG emissions (R), encouraging alternative-fuel vehicles and electric cars would be beneficial. An alternative-fuel top up station could be constructed within these proposed sustainable sites area. This would meet some of the economic issues by creating employment within the green industry. Until the social and economic issues have been addressed, we should consider contacting the Department for Communities and Local Government and asking them to rename the Code for Sustainable Homes to the Code for Environmental Homes. Planning Laws: As stated in Section 1.0, Zero-Carbon Homes will have to incorporate either on-site renewable technologies or locally sourced combined heat and power (CHP) for their energy needs. The National Planning Policy Statement 22: Renewable Energy gives national guidance in England, on the installation of renewable technologies. Statement 22 was last updated in 2004, but has been supplemented by the updated Planning Policy Statement 1: Planning Climate Change published in 2007. Currently there is a consultation draft to be updated and published before the end of this year (2009). The equivalent planning statement in Scotland is the National Planning Policy Guideline 6: Renewable Energy Developments. It provides the Scottish Executives policy on national land use and planning matters regarding renewable technologies. New permitted development rights introduced on 6th April 2008 in England and the 12th March 2009 in Scotland have made it easier to install renewable energy technologies such as solar panels and biomass boilers(R). These permitted development rights have lifted requirements for planning permission for most domestic micro-generation technologies. In England, The General Permitted Development Order (GPDO) gives rights to certain forms of development on the home without the need to apply for planning permission. In Scotland, these rights are under the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Developed) (Domestic Micro-generation) TCP (GPD) Scotland Amendment Order 2009. Currently the Welsh Assembly Government and Northern Ireland Government are considering changing their legislation to permit certain renewable technology development without having to apply for planning permission. Both governments hope to introduce legislation in 2010. The GPDO in England and the TCP (GPD) in Scotland include the following technologies: Solar PV Solar Thermal (Roof Mounted) Solar PV Solar Thermal (Stand Alone) Wood burning boilers and stoves Ground source heat pumps Water source heat pumps Air source heat pumps Micro and small wind (due to legal technicalities not included yet but further legislation expected later this year) The DPDO and TCP (GPD) are for guidance only. Each local authority has their own regulations that are set exclusively for their area. For example, a dwelling constructed within a conservation area would have to comply with stiffer standards with regard to installation of renewable technologies towards a dwelling not located in a conservation area. The Mid-Lothian Local Plan was published in 2007 and within NRG2 Individual Wins Turbines and Micro-Generations it states, The Council will support development that proposes the use of individual and community scale wind turbines and other micro-generation technologies for localised power requirements, provided they are located to minimise any potential adverse impact on the local community. The cumulative visual impact of such proposals will be taken into consideration when assessing individual planning applications There certainly is a good system in place in allowing the installation of certain renewable technologies without the need for applying for planning permission. The National Planning Policy Statements (England) and National Planning Policy Guidelines (Scotland) provide national frameworks which help local planning systems to evolve and deliver sustainable development. The current planning system is definitely driving us towards a sustainable future and the possibility of making ZCHs a reality by 2016. It is great to see that certain micro-generation technologies do not need to apply for planning permission, even if certain restrictions apply. But the main concern for home developers and owners is the cost of these technologies. Grants Incentives To construct a home that achieves a Level 6 in the CSH and a ZCH status requires new construction techniques and materials. There might be a higher initial cost to incorporate these techniques and materials than constructing a current standard home, but energy savings can be achieved over the whole life cost and operation of the home. The cost of constructing a ZCH is greater than a standard home because of the requirement to install renewable technologies. The cost of renewable energy generation depends on which type of technology is going to be installed within a home. In the UK, the government, energy suppliers and local authorities all provide grants towards installing renewable technologies into your home. The Department of Energy Climate Change (DECC) low carbon building programme provides grants for householders. The grants are available for micro-generation technologies including Solar PV, wind turbines, small scale hydro, solar water heating, heat pumps and bio-energy. The programme also funds renewable CHP, micro CHP and fuel cells. In Scotland, the Energy Saving Scotland home renewable grant scheme provides grants for homes. It is funded by the Scottish Government and the Energy Saving Trust. Funding is set at 30% of the installed cost up to a maximum of  £4,000. The grant covers Solar water heating, solar PV, solar thermal space heating, small scale wind and hydro systems, ground source and air source heat pumps and biomass boilers and stoves. In Scotland, you have the choice to apply for an Energy Saving Scotland home renewable grant or a low carbon buildings programme grant, but you cannot apply for a grant from both programmes for one technology. The grants available help towards the cost of the installation of renewables, but are they enough? With the current economic climate, people are being very careful with their money. Renewable technologies can save money over the whole life costing of a home, but its the initial cost that is important to people now. The grants available should be increased to really entice people to purchase these technologies. There are also feed-in tariffs available, if a home is generating more electrical energy than it needs, it can sell it back to the main energy suppliers. There are currently two main types of feed-in tariffs available, the Export Tariff, where you are only paid for the electricity you export to the electricity network and the Generation tariffs, where you are paid for all the electricity that your system generates even if you use it in your own home. There are also some Set Price Tariffs available where a fixed amount is paid by the energy supplier based on the type of system installed. The tariff feedback system is a chance for all consumers to become producers. All homes could become energy-plus which could make the UK a net exporter of renewable energy in the future. In Germany, they have been using a feed-in tariff system for over 10 years. It has been a huge success. Under the German system anyone generating electricity from solar PV, wind or hydro is guaranteed a payment of four times the market rate for 20 years. This reduces the payback time for cost of the renewable technologies to less than 10 years and after the payback time is complete, the home owner has a regular income from the electrical company for the power they generate. The cost is spread by generating companies among all users and has added about one cent/kwh to the average bill, or an extra à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬1.50 ( £1) a month (R). The growth in home electric generation and renewable technology use in Germany has created jobs and reduced the initial cost. With more companies competing for a share of the market, they have lowered their prices, a typical 3kw PV system costs about  £17,000 in Britain but less than  £10,000 in Germany (R). It has been proven that the feed in tariff system in Germany is lowering the initial cost of renewable technologies, creating employment and generating income for the home owner after the payback period is over. This system should be introduced worldwide, and promoted as a sustainable method as it incorporates the three pillars of sustainability: environmental, social and economic. Certifying Agencies BREEAM (BRE Environmental AssessmentMethod) is the leading and most widely used environmental assessment method for buildings. It sets the standard for best practice in sustainable design and has become the de facto measure used to describe a buildings environmental performance (R). An Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) is required for all homes whenever built, rented or sold. If you are buying or selling a home it is now law to have a certificate. They are also required on construction of new homes and are needed for rented homes the first time the property is let after 1 October 2008. The certificate records how energy efficient a property is as a building and provides A-G ratings. These are similar to the labels now provided with domestic appliances such as refrigerators and washing machines. The UKs governments Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP), assess the energy performance of dwellings and produces the EPC. Energy performance is based on consumption per unit floor area, energy cost rating (SAP rating), an Environmental Impact rating based on CO2 emissions (EI rating) and a Dwelling CO2 Emission Rate (DER). The SAP rating is based on energy costs associated with space heating, water heating, ventilation and lightings, less cost savings from energy generation technologies. The SAP rating is expressed on a scale of 1 to 100, the higher the number the lower the running costs. An EPC is always accompanied by a recommendation report that lists cost effective and other measures (such as low and zero carbon generating systems) to improve the energy rating. A rating is also given showing what could be achieved if all the recommendations were implemented. EPCS are produced by accredited energy assessors. Whats happening now? Some local authorities in the UK have been making exemplar progress in delivering a low carbon economy, such as Fife in Scotland and in the near future, Merseyside Council are to become the biggest UK low carbon economy (R). The Zero Carbon Hub is a web-site set up by the Government to help you understand the challenges, issues and opportunities involved in developing, building and marketing low and zero carbon homes. The Zero Carbon Hub shares practical experience and uses this information to accelerate main stream adoption of low and zero carbon methods and technologies. The web-site identifies successful examples of low and zero carbon housing solutions. This will help identify successful design, method, technologies and approaches. Currently major house developers within the UK are constructing prototype zero carbon homes. They are using the developments as exemplar projects on techniques and technologies needed to be included within a home to achieve Zero Carbon status. The following developers and companies have all developed a zero carbon home. Stewart Milne Group Sigma Project Kingspan Off-Site The Lighthouse Creo ProKoncept The Creo House Barratt Developments Plc The Barrett Green House Miller Homes Ltd. Miller Zero Housing Project Tarmac Ltd Level 6 Home University of Nottingham It is encouraging that the major house developers are constructing their own example of zero carbon homes that can be mass produced. They are experimenting with new techniques and materials and then sharing their results and information so everyone benefits. The Stewart Milne Group claim, for their Sigma project to achieve a Level 6 on the CSH, the initial cost for renewable technologies is currently from  £60,000- £70,000. They suggest we should be concentrating on super-insulating our homes instead of trying to generate energy. They make a valid point here, if we super insulate our homes we will need less energy to heat it, requiring less renewable technologies to generate electricity. It is highly likely that by 2013 many of the sustainability stumbling blocks for the UK will have been swept away by neccesity. Retrofit solutions to existing properties must be part of the future. If only our banks were to protect their assets by financing a UK wide improvement programme. As practitioners of sustainability we have the following summary for you all What is a zero carbon home? A zero carbon home would qualify for zero stamp duty if its design emission rating (DER) were a negative number and its Heat Loss Parameter HLP sufficiently low. At present; the embedded energy of the materials used the energy from appliances and fittings and fixtures the energy associated with transport and servicing are not included. The term low carbon home is rather vague and ambiguous for the consumer Regards The impact of achieving the 25 per cent and 44 per cent improvements above the current Part L standard in 2010 and 2013 is estimated to have a net impact on the economy up to 2016 of around  £1.9bn. These costs are based on assuming that developers choose technologies on the basis of minimising the capital costs of construction. However, if the impact of on going costs and benefits is taken into account in technology choices, then the overall cost to the economy is reduced to  £0.85bn, which is nearly half of the  £1.9bn cost. Under this scenario there is a slightly higher capital outlay (the percentage increase in Part L above 2006 in 2013 is 6.2 per cent compared with 5.4 per cent when the capital costs are minimised), but the difference in size of the ongoing benefits is clear.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

David Livingstone :: essays research papers

David Livingstone is a Scottish missionary and physician. He spent most of his life exploring Africa. He helped Europeans learn a lot about the continent of Africa. Livingstone was born in Scotland. His parents were really religious so David followed his dad’s footsteps. David is a really hard working person, the reason why he would want to go to Africa was because he knew that there weren’t a lot of Christians there; he also knew that not many people there knew about Christ. At age ten he began working in the local cotton mill, he had to work long hours and he got too little pay for what he was doing. When he didn’t work, he would just stay at home to study, and in 1836 he entered Anderson's College in Glasgow. He was mainly interested in theology and medicine. In 1838 the London Missionary Society accepted him as a candidate, and two years later he received a medical degree from the University of Glasgow. The First War between Britain and China ruined his hope s of becoming a medical missionary to China, but the missionary society arranged a new placement for him in southern Africa. He was supposed to be preaching in the southern part of Africa; however, due to the fact that he wasn’t successful, he went to the north. While he was there, he worked with an individual named, Robert Moffat. Later on he married his daughter, Mary Moffat. For the next 15 years, Livingstone was constantly moving into the African interior. He was strengthening his missionary determination he was also responding entirely to the delights of geographical discovery; he was building for himself a Christian, a courageous explorer, and a fervent antislavery advocate. As a missionary, David Livingstone quickly believed that what he was supposed to do is to not remain in one spot, preaching the gospel to the few local people willing to listen. Instead, he should keep on moving, reaching new groups and extending to them to be more familiar with what God wanted them to do with Christianity. Eventually he would expand this idea into a belief that his role was to open up Africa's interior to broader influences from Western civilization. Once that occurred, he would work hand in hand to end slave trading and uplift African peoples. Such motives drove Livingstone. He worked really hard as a missionary but he still had the desire to keep on exploring.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Stereotypes Exist Because They Are Grounded in Truth

Stereotypes Exist Because They Are Grounded In Truth Has anyone ever said that ‘unicorns exist in real life and that they have seen them’? Or that they ‘felt hot while it was snowing’? Or that ‘cats can bark like dogs’? Clearly there is no truth to these statements. This is simply because unicorns do not exist in real life, you cannot feel hot if it is snowing, and that cats simply cannot bark like dogs. Life cannot exist without water, what goes up must come down, and similarly any statement which is accepted by thousands of other people must have some hint of truth to it.As Kanazawa says â€Å"Many stereotypes are empirical generalizations with a statistical basis and thus on average tends to be true. If they are not true, they would not be stereotypes† (â€Å"The Scientific Fundamentalist†). Although some people argue that stereotypes are just over generalizations, and that people use them to perceive the stereotyped groups†™ characteristics, most stereotypes are true as what is generally accepted in society must be somehow grounded in reality. Moreover, many stereotypes have been proven by science, and conducted psychological studies such as stereotype threat.People who believe that stereotypes are false, argue that stereotypes are just over generalizations. They argue that stereotypes represent just a small minority of the group being stereotyped against. They give the example of the stereotype that â€Å"all blondes are dumb. † And state that while some blondes may be dumb, not all of them are, in fact many are quite smart. They say that one's hair color has no effect on ones intellectual capability. While this may be true for some of the stereotypes, many of the stereotypes actually represent the majority of the group being stereotyped.For example the stereotype that ‘college educated people have bigger incomes than those who have only completed high school’ is a valid assessm ent. Yes, this might be true in some cases. But as proven by the â€Å"The College Payoff† a report published by the Georgetown University, while there might be a small handful of people who are only high school educated and who earn more than many of the college educated people, still most of the college educated people have a higher salary then high school educated people (Carnevale, Rose, and cheah â€Å"the college payoff†).So although there may be some stereotypes that are false or depict over generalization, most of the stereotypes in fact are based on assessments and actions of the majority of the group being stereotyped. Furthermore, people who argue that stereotypes are false state that people continue to cling on to stereotypes because it is quick and comfortable. It allows people to think they are gathering information about other people, without having to stop and actually spend time understanding the person or groups true personality. They claim that becau se of this many of the people or groups are misunderstood.However, what these people do not realize is that many of these stereotypes quite rightly show some of the traits of the group or individual being stereotyped. An example is the stereotype, ‘Jews are adept money handlers'. The fact is that this stereotype is true to quite a great extent. According to ‘The Weakonomics’, â€Å"you see an overwhelming representation of Jewish people within industries that revolve around the exchange of money†¦ Not only have they dominated finance†¦ † (â€Å"Why Do We Associate Jews with Money? †). While some of the Jews are either lawyers or doctors, most of them are in a field related to finance such as banking.In fact most of the people in top positions related to finance are Jews like the treasurer of the United States, and the Secretary of the Treasury. In fact most of the people running the American Treasury happen to be Jewish. Another example is the stereotype that Asians are smart and studious. Some people say Asians are smart because they are taught differently in their home country, others claim that Asians are smart because they are very studious, and still others say that Asians are studious because they feel academically at a loss when they come to foreign places to study and to compensate study harder.Whatever may be the reason, the truth remains that Asians are smarter and more studious than most of people. Thus, while some stereotypes might contain some discrepancies, most of the stereotypes show the truth about the group being stereotyped. Stereotypes do not just come out of thin air; they were based on actual observations of people or their actions. An event must have occurred to have that formed these stereotypes.For example according to Meltzoff, Cvencek and Greenwald, the stereotype that boys are better in math then girls forms almost as early as second grade when boys start to associate with math and start do ing better than girls in the subject (766-799). In fact all of the stereotypes have evolved from an origin. The stereotype that ‘blacks are good at sports’ came about because in almost every sport there is a black athlete who dominates the others. As sports sociologist Ben Carrington points out, at the beginning of the 20th century, whites were considered to be superior to blacks intellectually, aesthetically and even physically.However by the 1930s, this logic began to change as blacks started to be viewed as physically superior to whites in matters related to sports (Interview of Carrington, University of Texas). Another example is the stereotype that ‘Italian men are very romantic’. This stereotype exists because of the Italians' constant flirting with girls and their traditions which involve kissing a girl on her hand as a greeting. As Megalio says, Italian men â€Å"tell you that you're beautiful and really mean it, feed you to show their affection, c ry rarely but genuinely and work hard in honor of the woman they love† (â€Å"Why Women Can't Get Enough of Them†).Another example is the stereotype that ‘Italian men have an unhealthy obsession with their mothers. ‘ According to Pike and Allen; married or not, one in three Italian men sees his mother every day (The Guardian). Thus, stereotypes are formed based on history and statistics, but in order to survive they must be regularly reinforced. While there might be some stereotypes that do not apply to the majority of the group being stereotyped against, or are exaggerated truths, many of the stereotypes have in fact been proven by science.For example, according to Susan, quite a lot of gender stereotypes have been proven to be true by science (â€Å"Gender Stereotypes That Science Says Are True†). These stereotypes include ‘Women Love to Talk’ and ‘men are comparatively color blind’. As per the stereotype women love to talk , Susan talks about how the areas of the brain responsible for language are larger in women than men, and how the female brain processes language in both hemispheres of the brain (â€Å"Gender Stereotypes That Science Says Are True†).Moreover, regarding the stereotype ‘men are comparatively color blind', Susan talks about how the gene for seeing red is carried by the X-chromosome, and men have one X-chromosome while women have two, which puts men at a disadvantage at seeing the color spectrum (â€Å"Gender Stereotypes That Science Says Are True†). Another example is the stereotype that black people can't swim. In the first of its kind survey by USA swimming, it found that nearly 60% of black children have not been given aquatic training. (Quoted. in msnbc).Therefore, as we can see from the examples given, many stereotypes have actually been proven by science to be true and are hence more than just exaggerated truths. Lastly, another way in which stereotypes are t rue is the fact that they actually reinforce stereotypical behavior. This phenomenon is known as stereotype threat, whereby an individual is constantly exposed to negative images of his/her racial or ethnic group, this person starts to accept the same social and personal characteristics of these images as self characteristic.In fact psychologists, Steve and Aronson, conducted several experiments in which they proved that the phenomenon of stereotype threat does exist. When female participants were primed before a test of not being as smart as their male counterparts, their scores were significantly lower as compared to when the women were led to believe the tests did not reflect these stereotypes(â€Å"A threat in the air† 613-629). The same experiment was run again using African-Americans and Americans with the same results (â€Å"Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance† 797-811). Thus proving that the person acts like the way he/she was stereotyped to be.Stereotypes might be flattering or insulting. They might have positive effects or negative ones. But at the end of the day the fact remains that most of the stereotypes are true because they are grounded in actual observations of people, they have been proven by science, and because of the concept of stereotype threat. As David Cronenberg says â€Å"All stereotypes turn out to be true. This is a horrifying thing about life. All those things you fought against as a youth: you begin to realize they're stereotypes because they're true. † Therefore, just as smoke cannot exist without fire, stereotypes cannot exist without truth.Works Cited Kanazawa, Satoshi. â€Å"The Scientific Fundamentalist. † Psychology Today. 24 April 2008. Web. 12th March 2012 ;http://www. psychologytoday. com/blog/the-scientific-fundamentalist/200804/all-stereotypes-are-true-except-i-what-are-stereotypes;. Carnevale, Anthony P.. Rose, Stephen J.. Cheah, Ban. â€Å"The College Payoff†. Geo rgetown University Center for Education and the Workforce. 5th August 2011. Print. ; http://cew. georgetown. edu/collegepayoff/; â€Å"Why Do We Associate Jews With Money? † The Weakonomics. 27th July 2009. Web. 12th march 2012 ; http://weakonomics. om/2009/07/27/why-do-we-associate-jews-with-money/ ; Cvencek, D. , Meltzoff, A. N. and Greenwald, A. G. (2011), â€Å"Math–Gender Stereotypes in Elementary School Children Child Development†, 82: 766–779. ;http://onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/10. 1111/j. 1467-8624. 2010. 01529. x/abstract; Blacks, Sports and Lingering Racial Stereotypes: A Q;A with Sports Sociologist Ben Carrington. Interview by University of Texas. 25th August 2010. Web. 12th march 2012. ;http://www. utexas. edu/opa/blogs/shelflife/2010/08/25/blacks-sports-and-lingering-racial-stereotypes-a-qa-with-sports-sociologist-ben-carrington/;Meglio, Francesca Di, â€Å"Italian Men: Why Women Can't Get Enough of Them†?. Our Paesani. Web. 12th ma rch 2012. Pike, Rebecca; Allen, Carmel. â€Å"Mamma mia†. The Guardian. 14th May 2002. Web. 12th March 2012. < http://www. guardian. co. uk/world/2002/may/14/gender. uk> H. Susan. â€Å"6 Absurd Gender Stereotypes (That Science Says Are True)†. 10th May 2010. Web. 12th March 2012. â€Å"Nearly 60 percent of black children can't swim†.Associated Press. Msnbc. 5th January 2008. Web. March 12th 2012. ;http://www. msnbc. msn. com/id/24411271/ns/health-childrens_health/t/nearly-percent-black-children-cant-swim/#. T2CsyBHxrNl; Steele, C. M. â€Å"A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance†. American Psychologist. 1997. Print. 52, 613-629. Steele, C. M. , and Aronson, J. â€Å"Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African-Americans†. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1995. Print. 69, 797-811. Cronenberg, David. Brainy Quote. Web.

Friday, November 8, 2019

How to Conjugate Se Taire (to Be Quiet) in French

How to Conjugate Se Taire (to Be Quiet) in French Se taire is the French verb that means to be quiet. This is a pronominal verb and an irregular one, so there are a couple of special things you need to know about its conjugations. This lesson will explain what those are and help you learn and memorize the simplest forms of  se taire. Se Taire  Is a Pronominal Verb You may already have noticed that  se taire  is a two-word verb. It is what we call a  pronominal verb, meaning that the action can only be performed by the subject itself. The  se  of  se taire  is a reflexive pronoun and it changes according to the subject pronoun. In English, we would use the words myself, yourself, himself, etc. to indicate this.  For example, you can make yourself be quiet or they can make themselves be quiet. The Basic Conjugations of  Se Taire The fact that  se taire  is a pronominal verb does complicate its conjugations, though that part isnt too difficult. All you have to remember is that the reflexive verb is required and that it must change with the subject pronoun. This means you will use  je me  or  nous nous rather than  je  or  nous  alone as you would in most French verb conjugations. To make things just a little more complicated,  se taire  is also an  irregular verb. It does not follow any of the common patterns were used to. This means you have some extra work to do when memorizing it, but it will come with practice. With all that said, lets begin by studying the indicative verb mood because this is the one youll use most often for se taire. Here you will find the common present, future, and imperfect past tenses to use in everyday conversation. Using the chart, find the subject and reflexive pronouns appropriate to your sentence, then match it up with the proper tense to find the correct conjugation. For example, I am being quiet is  je me tais  and we were quiet is  nous nous taisions. Present Future Imperfect je me tais tairai taisais tu te tais tairas taisais il se tait taira taisait nous nous taisons tairons taisions vous vous taisez tairez taisiez ils se taisent tairont taisaient The Present Participle of  Se Taire The  present participle  of  se taire  is  se taisant. While its most useful as a verb, you may also use it as an adjective or noun in certain circumstances. Se Taire  in the Compound Past Tense Another way to express the past tense is the compound known as the  passà © composà ©Ã‚  in French. This requires the  auxiliary verb  Ãƒ ªtre  and the  past participle  tu. Once again, you will also need both the subject and reflexive pronouns. The key to the passà © composà © is to conjugate  Ãƒ ªtre  to the present tense and follow it with the past participle. Since  se taire  can be a bit confusing, well look at all of the possibilities: je me suis tu  - I was quiettu tes tu  - you were quietil sest tu  - he was quietnous nous sommes tus  - we were quietvous vous  Ãƒ ªtes tus  - you all were quietils se sont tus - they were quiet More Simple Conjugations of  Se Taire Among the other simple conjugations youll want to study for se taire are those that question the act of being quiet. If that may or may not happen, use the subjunctive. If that is dependent on something, use the conditional. You should only encounter the passà © simple  and  the imperfect subjunctive  when reading or writing as these are literary tenses for the French language. Subjunctive Conditional Pass Simple Imperfect Subjunctive je me taise tairais tus tusse tu te taises tairais tus tusses il se taise tairait tut tt nous nous taisions tairions tmes tussions vous vous taisiez tairiez ttes tussiez ils se taisent tairaient turent tussent The reflexive pronoun is still required when using  se taire  in  the imperative,  though its attached to the end. The subject pronoun is not required, so you can simplify  tu tais-toi  to  tais-toi. Imperative (tu) tais-toi (nous) taisons-nous (vous) taisez-vous

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

ghost essays

ghost essays Using all of his seemingly infinite faculties to compose Hamlet, Shakespeare gives each significant character in the play all the depth and emotion of a living human being. Because of this, the characters, as well as the plot, become extremely intricate and difficult to define. Simply assigning a "label" to each character does not do justice to their complexity because no one character acts according to any easily discernible guidelines. By this reasoning, it is difficult to determine for certain whether the ghost of Hamlet's father is either a "Spirit of Health" or a "Goblin Damn'd." In order to do this, it is necessary to look, not at the ghost's intentions, but at the effect of its message on Hamlet's life. If an assessment of the ghost had to be made, it would probably be considered a "Goblin Damn'd" rather than a "Spirit of Health," based on the disastrous effects its words had on the course of Hamlet's life. When the Ghost utters the fateful words "Revenge his [the Ghost's] foul and most unnatural murder," Hamlet's life is forever changed for the worse. Not only does Hamlet's quest for revenge divide his family and friends, but it also divides Hamlet himself. Seems, madam? Nay, it is. I know not "seems." In the exchange that follows this line between the Queen and Hamlet, Hamlet's distaste over his mother and uncle's brief period of mourning becomes evident. It also demonstrates some of Hamlet's suspicion concerning the circumstances surrounding his father's death. This exchange, however, occurs befor...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

The Fall of Berlin Wall and its impact on the 1989 Revolution Research Paper

The Fall of Berlin Wall and its impact on the 1989 Revolution - Research Paper Example In addition, the paper examines the relationship between the collapse of the war and the subsequent revolution in 1989. Shortly before the Berlin wall was opened, the East German government had announced in 9 November 1989 that travel restrictions between the East and West Germany would be lifted with immediate effect (Beissinger, 2002). The announcement triggered excitement among the residents on the eastern and western side of the Berlin city and they dashed to the concrete barrier that had prevented interaction and movement of people across the boundary for over two decades. Berlin wall was constructed in 1961 and Peters (2009) indentifies four factors that motivated the construction. These include division of Germany in different administrative sectors, the mass movement of people from the east to the West Germany, rapid development and industrialization in West Germany and tensions between United States and Soviet Union (Peters 2009). Division of Germany into various administrative sectors occurred soon after the end of the Second World War. According to Darden and Anna (2006), the country was divided into four segments which were assigned to the four powers that had played the major role in the defeat of Germany during the war. United States, Britain and the Soviet Union in addition to France were assigned one administrative portion each. Similarly, Berlin which was the capital city was divided into four segments which were allocated to the four foreign powers. Due to the fact that Berlin was within the sector allocated to the Soviet Union, it was major cause of tension between the ideologically different western and the eastern powers. Consequently, Berlin City was polarized into two segments, the western part controlled by United States, France and Britain while the eastern part under the Soviet Union (Michael, 2009). According to Engel (2009),

Friday, November 1, 2019

Critical Issue Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Critical Issue Analysis - Essay Example Followers of the second are equally steadfast in their opinion that to equate abortion to murder rests on a wafer thin foundation of religious beliefs and that embryo neither has life not is an individual with rights. The choice to or not to abort should vest with the pregnant woman. The debate arouses virulent passions2. To being forth the intensity of emotions aroused by the contentious issue of abortion and some semblance of objectivity, viewpoints of a male and female author have been considered. The female is a staunch anti-abortionist, and the male an ‘enlightened’ believer in freedom of choice. In the interest of simplification, the adherents of divergent viewpoints have been placed in two categories, namely, pro and anti abortionists. In an article titled, â€Å"Abortion rights are pro-life,† Dr. Leonard Peikoff3 takes an aggressive stance, and wonders why the pro-abortion rights forces are on the defensive. He willingly provides the answer: because nobody is any longer defending the right to abortion on moral grounds. He exhorts the pro-abortionists not to be apologetic and fight tooth and nail. He believes that â€Å"the embryo is clearly pre-human; only the mystical notions of religious dogma treat this clump of cells as constituting a person,† and â€Å"is not an independently existing, biologically formed organism, let alone a person.† Diane S. Dew, a mother and an anti-abortionist campaigner, in an article titled, â€Å"Its a child, not a choice,† argues that society’s penchant for defense of rights of an individual smacks of the diabolical and pro-abortionists have blown it out of proportion. She contends that the pro-abortion lobby is backed by vested interests, notably, doctors, for whom â€Å"abortion is big business.† Since the legalization of abortion in 1973, our nation has lost an entire generation to abortion. We

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Business management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Business management - Essay Example Various management practices depend on the trust and empowerment that are designed to increase employee assurance to performance objectives and organizational objectives. The scenario of market place and space are rapidly changing since few years. Therefore these changing scenarios have convinced the management of company and shareholders to adopt a new archetype based on new values. For an example, in banking sector new financial products are jumping up in quick speed. These may create several problems and tough times for the management board in order to compete in this global competitive market. The organization cultures need to change according to the change of market place scenario. It involves understanding the current role, current culture. There is need for greater flexibility and speed that can be achieved through employee involvement in the management decision making. Due to high flexibility, employees get motivated to innovate without any kind of bureaucracy. Red tapes and bureaucracy generally aggravates employees and shuts them down. Employee involvement in management decision making is an old idea that has been frequently invigorated by new generation organizations across the globe. For an example, the oldest system of documented of employee participation is a particular document called â€Å"employee suggestion system† established in 1898. The return of nominal investments comes as superior level of employee motivation, productivity, creativity, and commitment that will shift the organization towards success.

Monday, October 28, 2019

The Pythagorean Theorem Essay Example for Free

The Pythagorean Theorem Essay In the world of mathematics, the Pythagorean Theorem is one of the most popular theorems and is widely applied in many problems and applications because of its basic and simple concept. It is a relation in Euclidean geometry relating the three sides of a right triangle. The theorem is named after the Greek mathematician and philosopher, Pythagoras, who lived in the 6th century B.  C.   It is one of the earliest theorems known since the ancient civilizations. The Pythagorean Theorem states that: â€Å"In any right angle triangle, the area of the square   of   the side opposite the right angle i. e. whose side is the hypotenuse   is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares of the two sides that meet at a right angle i.e. whose sides are the two legs.† In other words, â€Å"The square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.† Consider a right triangle ∆ABC with right angle at A. BAC = 90 degrees Then, the square drawn on BC opposite the right angle is equal to the two squares together on BA and AC. Thus,   the sides of a right triangle are related by the squares drawn on them. The Pythagorean Theorem is a statement about triangles containing a right angle. It states that: The area of the square built upon the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares upon the remaining sides.          Illustratation by numbers Let the sides of the right angle triangle be 3, 4, and 5.    Then the square drawn on the side opposite the right angle is 25, which is equal to the squares on the sides that make the right angle:   9 + 16. The side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thus the theorem can be expressed as the equation: 32 + 42  Ã‚   = 52. This proves the earlier statement which is â€Å"The square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.†    Proofs    This is a theorem that may have more known proofs than any other. Consider a right triangle with sides a, b, and c as hypotenuse.                         Let a, b, and c arrange four of those triangles to form a square whose side is a  +  b as shown above in Fig.  1. Now, the area of that square is equal to the sum of the four triangles, plus the interior square whose side is c. Two of those triangles taken together, however, are equal to a rectangle whose sides are a, b.   The area of such a rectangle is a times b:   ab.   Therefore the four triangles together are equal to two such rectangles.   Their area is 2ab. As for the square whose side is c, its area is simply c ².   Therefore, the area of the entire square is c ² + 2ab   .   .   .   .   .   .  (1) At the same time, an equal square with side a + b (Fig. 2) is made up of a square whose side is a, a square whose side is b, and two rectangles whose sides are a, b.   Therefore the area of that square is a ² + b ² + 2ab But this is equal to the square formed by the triangles, line  (1): a ² + b ² + 2ab = c ² + 2ab. Therefore, on subtracting the two rectangles 2ab from each square, we are left with a ² + b ² = c ². This is the Pythagorean Theorem Works Cited Bell, John L. The Art of the Intelligible: An Elementary Survey of Mathematics in its Conceptual Development. USA: Kluwer, 1999. Dunham, W. Euclids Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem. Journey through Genius: The Great Theorems of Mathematics. New York: Wiley, 1990. Maor, Eli. The Pythagorean Theorem: A 4,000-Year History. Princeton. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2007. Morris, Stephanie J. â€Å"The Pythagorean Theorem.† 2008. The University of Georgia Department of Mathematics Education.   1 May 2008 Spector, Lawrence. â€Å"The Pythagorean Thoerem.† The Math Page. 2008. 30 April 2008 http:// Weisstein, Eric W. â€Å"Pythagorean Theorem.† MathWorld. 1 May 2008. Wolfram Web Resource. 3 May 2008 Theorem.html.